Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, west nile virus infection, etc. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances leads to an adverse effects on environment and non target organisms. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude aqueous and methanol solvent extracts of leaves and seeds of the medicinal plant Pongamia pinnata against the mosquito vectors Culex quiquafaciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae).Larvicidal activity of Pongamia pinnata leaf aqueous extract (PPLAE), leaf methanol extract (PPLME); seed aqueous (PPSAE) and seeds methanol extracts(PPSME) was studied in the range of 50-400ppm against fourth instar larvae of Culux quinquefasciatus , An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of crude extracts (PPLAE, PPLME, PPSAE and PPSME). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of P. pinnata for all three important vector mosquitoes. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cu quinquefaciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi to various concentrations of leaf and seed methanol extracts (PPLME and PPSME) ranging from 100 to 900 ppm under laboratory conditions. Mean percent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48h post treatment.All leaf (PPLAE, PPLME) and seed extracts (PPSAE, PPSME) showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, methanol extracts of leaf (PPSME) of P. pinnata against the larvae of Culux quinquefasciatus , Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi LC50 and LC90values of 153.09, 288.24 ppm; 140.656, 277.74 ppm; and 106.27, 231.99 ppm, respectively. P. Pinnate methanol extract of seed (PPSME) LC50 and LC90values of 140.656, 277.74 ppm; 123.572, 228.236ppm and 100.272-231.996 ppm, respectively against the three vector mosquito larvae ovicidal efficacy of P. Pinnata the percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The methanol leaf extract of P. pinnata against An. stephensi Ae. aegypti and,Culux quinquefasciatus exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 500, 600 and 700 ppm, respectively, With PPSME 100% mortality at 600, 700 and 700 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 98-100% hatchability. Among the extracts tested, the highest ovicidal activity was observed in the PPLME. Compared to leaf extracts (PPLME) seed extracts (PPSME) have low potency against the three vector mosquitoes.Our data suggest that the crude leaf and seed aqueous (PPLAE, PPSAE) and methanol solvent extracts (PPLME, PPSME)of P. pinnata have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.
15030212 Larval and Ovicidal effects of Pongamia pinnata pdf
The present study has been conducted to understand the protective role of vitamin C on malathion toxicity in the gill for a period of 50 days. Five groups of 10 fish each were exposed separately to malathion (0.71ppm) solution prepared in tap water. Each group was exposed for 6, 12, 25, 35 and 50 days to one of the following treatments:Group I: Control group, fish were reared in tap water and fed on a commercial diet (32% protein).Group II: Control group, fish were reared in tap water and fed on a commercial diet (32% protein) supplemented with 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet.Group III: Fish were exposed to 1/10 LC50(0.71mg/l) of malathion and fed on a commercial diet (32% protein). Group IV: Fish were exposed to 0.71mg/l of malathion and fed on a commercial diet (32% protein) supplemented with 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet.In Group III, the gills showed extensive damages in their lamellar configuration even though the gill continue to regenerate repeatedly after every wear and tear, especially during the initial stages. The gill showed fusion of SL with the neighbouring gill filament and form undifferentiated mass of cells. The present study indicated that malathion at sub-lethal levels under laboratory conditions had the capacity to alter the normal physiological functions gills of catfish, C. batrachus.
15030211 Studies on Malathion Toxicity in the Gill of the Catfish Clarias batrachus (Linn.) pdf
Coir pith was considered as an agro waste in the yester years. Coir pith as an organic waste is suitable for vermicomposting, potting medium in horticulture industry and as a suitable agricultural amendment. Though coir pith is suitable for many techniques, there are also some constraints present in using the raw coir pith, such as high EC, high cation exchange capacity, low pH, high amount of soluble salts like potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and chloride. In order to overcome these constraints the present study was undertaken and particular issues were studied. Thus the process of pre-processing of coir pith i.e. washing the coir pith repeatedly for several times (7 times) was found effective in overcoming the constraints in the usage of raw coir pith.
15030210 Studies on physico-chemical characteristics of raw and pre-processed coir pith
Water is essential for both animal and plant kingdom and also for industrial, agricultural and domestic needs. Now a day the available surface water is not fulfilling the needs of human beings. Hence to meet the demand of water the Groundwater resources are tapped. Ground water is a good source of fresh water available on the earth. It is an important renewable resource having several inherent advantages over surface water. Its wide distribution, negligible evaporation loss and low risk of contamination are considered as important qualities of groundwater. Geochemistry of surface and ground water plays a major role for determining its chemical quality which is determined by mineral composition of aquifer through which water flows. In order to understand the groundwater chemistry. In order to understand the hydro geochemistry about 65 groundwater samples have been collected from bore wells during post monsoon season. The important parameters like pH, EC, TDS and major cations and anions were analysed. The pH and EC are varying from 6.4 to 8 and 307 to 4732 µs/cm. The TDS are varying from 146 to 2892 mg/l. The minimum and maximum chemical concentration of cations such as Ca, Mg, Na, K are 24 to 262 mg/l, 18 to 201 mg/l, 98 to 793 mg/l and 16 to 139 mg/l respectively. Similarly, the minimum and maximum concentration of anions like Cl, SO4, HCO3 and NO3 are 76 to 1282.8 mg/l, 0.8 to 4.8 mg/l, 248.8 to 1432 mg/l and 0.01 to 0.78 mg/l respectively. The data has interpreted with Diamond field of piper diagram to understand the water type, source of contamination and facies. The Gibbs plot interpretation favours the rock-water interaction and with minor representation in evaporation zone. The quality of water for irrigation was estimated by USSL plot. The suitability of water for its utility was verified using Indian and WHO standards. The result shows that most of the samples are suitable for drinking and irrigational purpose except few samples.
1503029 Hydro geochemical Study of Groundwater in Chinnar Sub-Basin of Vellar River
Organic compounds exhibit SHG efficiency which has order of magnitude largerthan widely known inorganic materials. They also offer the flexibility of molecular design and the promise of virtually an unlimited number of crystalline structures. Due to delocalization character, tailor made organic crystals can be grown which posse’s far superior properties than that of inorganic material; hence researchers focus their attention on the exploration of newer and newer organic NLO crystals. In this paper deals with the organic NLO crystals introduction, literature and currents trends.
1503027.Non linear Optical Materials-A review pdf.
Industrial development creates the disposal of industrial effluent has become the more ecological challenge. The physico chemical analysis of the tannery effluent showed high alkalinity, BOD, COD and more total dissolved salts. The effects of various concentrations ie control 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 per cent of tannery raw and BTE effluent were tested on seed germination and morphological parameters of Vigna radiata. Various morphological growth parameters such as shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights, vigour index, tolerance index and percentage of phytotoxicity were analysed. The pot culture experiment treatments T1, T2, T3,T4 and T5 were irrigated to crop plants. The morphometrical parameters of green gram were assessed at different sampling days (15, 30, 45 and 60 DAS).The root length and leaf area were increased at 10 per cent of both Raw Effluent (RE) Biologically Treated Effluent (BTE) and then decreased with an increase of effluent concentrations.
1503026.Effect of Tannery Raw Effluent and Biological Treated Effluent…pdf.
In the research center on geographic routing, and a promising routing idea in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is shifting in the direction of duty-cycled WSNs in which sensors are sleep scheduled to decrease energy utilization.. However, except the connected-k neighborhood (CKN) sleep scheduling algorithm and the geographic routing oriented sleep scheduling (GSS) algorithm, nearly all research work about geographic routing in duty-cycled WSNs has focused on the geographic forwarding mechanism.Sleep scheduling is a broadly used approach for reduction the energy of sensor nodes and prolonging the life span of a wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper, we concentrate on sleep scheduling for geographic routing in obligation cycled WSNs with portable sensors furthermore, propose geographic-distance-based connected-k neighborhood (GCKN) sleep scheduling algorithm. That is GCKNF for first Scheduling calculation with multiple sinks. The approach is evaluated through simulation. Simulation results have confirmed the effectiveness of our new approach.
1503025.Mobility Based Geographic Routing With Multiple Sinks in Mobile Sensor…pdf.
The experiment was condected in clay loamy soil to known the Efficacy of dairy effluent on morphological and pigment condence of black gram ( Vigna mungo.L) Hepper. The dairy effluent concentrations such as 10,25,50,75,100 percent were applied on the black gram Seedlings. The parameters such as germination percentage root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight, vigour index, tolenerant index, percentage of phytotoxicity were measured. The biochemical content such as, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b,Total chlorophyll,carotenoids contents were measured .the mineral content such as ,protein,aminoacid,Reducing sugar ,nonreducing sugar and total sugar also recorded .Highest growth performance was recorded at 10 percent Effluent concentration when compare to other treatments
1503024.Efficacy of dairy effluent on morphological and pigment contents…pdf.
Indian mangroves cover about 6,749 km, the fourth largest mangrove area in the world. These mangrove habitats (69°E-89.5°E longitude and 7°N-23°N latitude). In India, West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra, Tamil Nadu, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra, and Gujarat occupy vast area of Mangroves. The Indian mangroves comprise approximately 59 species in 41 genera and 29 families. Mangroves in India are one of the most valuable coastal habitats providing enormous benefits (both tangible and non-tangible) to the local communities as well as the ecology and environment surrounding them. But these mangroves have so many threats like Additional pressures on wetlands from natural causes like subsidence, drought, hurricanes, erosion etc., and human threats coming from over exploitation, for agriculture, commercial and residential development. Tangible benefits of mangroves comprise timber and non-timber products, fishery and other livelihood support systems whereas non-tangible benefits include ecological and social functions, such as coastal protection against wave and current abrasion, shelter and habitat for wildlife, and ecotourism. Mangroves need protections from natural disasters in which coastal zone is a dynamically unstable where of one or the other kind like sea intrusions, cyclones, tsunami, etc., Along with the restoration work, awareness should be campaigned, educational materials should be made available to improve knowledge on mangrove habitats, resources, relevant legislation, policies and conservation strategies with the help of media like magazines, posters, documentary, exhibitions, bird watching tours, study tours, competitions on mangrove knowledge etc. Learning can be easier with better.
1503023.Mangroves.Mangroves in India: A Unique Marine Ecosystem pdf.
Marine plants are considered as a source of bioactive compounds as they are able to produce a great variety of secondary metabolites characterized by a broad spectrum of biological activities. Compounds with antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antimicrobial activities have been detected in mangroves, seaweeds and seagrasses. Marine plants are the source of amino acids, terpenoids, phlorotannins, steroids, phenolic compounds, halogenated ketones and alkanes and cyclic polysulphides. In this study, the antibacterial activity of flowering seagrass species viz., Syringodium isoetifolium and Cymodocea serrulata and non-flowering seaweeds viz., Amphiroa anceps, Gracilaria corticata, Sargassum wightii, Padina pavonica, Ulva lactuca, and Valaniopsis pachynema were tested. Interestingly it is found that, most of the ethanolic algal extracts controls all the pathogens of antibiotic resistant organism, fish pathogens, poultry pathogens and human ophthalmic pathogens. The antibacterial activity of halophytic plant extracts were evaluated by the well diffusion assay and the zone of inhibition ranged between 6mm to 14mm. The maximum activity was recorded with the marine algal ethanolic extract of V. pachynema against almost to all the pathogens selected for the study.
1503022.Antimicrobial activity of marine flowering and non-flowering halophytic plants…pdf.